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Contoh Makalah dan Cara Membuat Skripsi Tesis Disertasi



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Contoh MakalahAccording to Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia (the Great Dictionary of Indonesian Language), Contoh Makalah ( formal writing paper) is about a principal which is to be read in public in a trial and well prepared for publication; or can say as students paper reports as the results of the performance of duties as at school or college.

Structurally the paper that is commonly used is composed of:
  1. Preface (kata pengantar): contains the author's words of hope, gratitude, etc. from the author
  2. Table of Contents (daftar isi)
  3. Introduction (pendahuluan): background of making tasks, objectives and benefits desired.
  4. Theory (landasan teori): quote theories underlying the paper, usually directly quoted from the handbooks.
  5. Discussion (pembahasan): The core of a paper that want to be discussed put in this chapter
  6. Conclusion (kesimpulan): Short word or conclusion about what have discussed in the previous chapter
  7. Bibliography (daftar pustaka): the sources you use
And for the early stages, namely: Choosing Topics
When the topic has been determined, you may no longer have the freedom to choose. However, it does not mean you are ready to go the next step.

Think first the type of a script will be written. Is the form of an overview or analysis of a topic in particular? If only an overview, you can directly go to the next step. But if you want to do a special analysis, your topic must be really specific. If the topic is still too general, you can narrow your topic.

For example, if the topic of "Indonesia" is a topic that is still very common. If you aim to write a general description (overview), then this topic is right. But if you want to make a short analysis, you can narrow down this topic into "Intellectual Culture of Indonesia" or "Situation Politics in Indonesia. Once you are sure of what you write, you can proceed to the next step.

When the topic was not specified, then your job is more severe. On the other hand, actually you have the freedom to choose the topic you like, so that usually makes your essay much stronger and character.

Determine objective
Determine in advance the purpose of the essay you write. Whether to persuade people to trust what you trust? Explaining how to do certain things? Educate readers about a person, idea, place or thing? Whatever topic you choose, be in accordance with its purpose.

Write Your Enthusiasm
If you have set goals your essay, write down some of the subjects that interested for you. More and more subjects that you write, the better. If you have a problem to find the subjects you are interested in, just look around you. Are there things interesting around you? Think about your life? What are you doing? Maybe some of them are interesting to be a topic. Do not evaluate the subjects, just write down everything that springs to mind.

Evaluation of Potential Topics
If you already have some topics that deserves, consider each of these topics. If the purpose to educate, you have to understand correctly about the topic mentioned . If the purpose convincing, then the topic should be really exciting. Most importantly, how many ideas you have for the topic you choose.

Before you continue to the next step, look at the longer form of the script you write. Similar to the case where the topics you have specified, you also need to think about the form of a script that you write.

Creating Outline
The purpose of making an outline is to put your ideas of your topic in the manuscript in a format that is organized.

Start writing your topic at the top
  • Write the Roman numeral I, II, III to the left of the page, with a fairly wide range including.
  • Write the outline of your ideas about topics that you mean:
  • If you are trying to convince, give the best argumentation
  • If you explain a process, write down the steps so that the readers they can understand .
  • If you try to inform something, describe the main categories of information
  • In each roman numeral, write A, B and C descend in the left side of the page. Write down the facts or information that supports main idea
Write a thesis
A thesis statement reflects the content of essays and important points which will be submitted by the authors. You have determined the topic of your essay, now you have to look back at the outline that you have made, and decide what will be an important point you make.

Statement of your thesis is composed of two parts:
The first part states the topic. Example: Culture of Indonesia, Indonesia's Corruption
The second part stating the points of your essay. Example: have a tremendous wealth, requires a long time to combating it, and so on.

Body of essay to write
This section is the most fun part of writing an essay. You can explain, illustrate and provide a complete argument for the topic you've selected. Each important idea that you write on the outline will become one paragraph of the body of your thesis.

Each paragraph has a similar structure :
Start by writing your great idea in the form of sentences. Suppose that your ideas are: "Combating corruption in Indonesia", you can write: "Combating corruption in Indonesia requires patience and time"

Then write their respective points which are supporting the idea, yet allowing four to five rows.
At each point, write down the expansion of these points. Elaboration of this can be a description or explanation or discussion. If necessary, you can use a sentence at the conclusion of each paragraph.

Hopefully it useful for you.



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